Crisis periods in the development of the family
The family is the oldest institution of human interaction, a unique phenomenon. Its uniqueness lies in the fact that several people interact in the most direct way for a long time, dating back decades, that is, for the most part of human life. In such a system of intensive interaction, disputes, crises, conflicts can not arise.
Conflict of marital relations are the crisis periods of family development.
There are three such periods:
The first crisis period
is associated with the adaptation of newlyweds to conditions of joint life (this period lasts until the birth of a child). During this period, conflicts in a young family may occur due to various reasons:
· Possible frustration with a partner. This leads to the emergence of mutual irritability, which is often aggravated by anger not only on the partner but also on himself: “Well, how could I never notice it all before”;
· Changes in the emotional relationship of both spouses to what is happening: family life requires self-limitation in terms of habitual needs, romanticity, which is peculiar to the pre-marital period, disappears;
· Non-violations of value hierarchies among young spouses;
· Difficulties in the formation of the role structure of the family – the distribution of roles, the intra-family status, the unsatisfactory role expectations and claims, etc.
· Possible difficulties in building relationships between young spouses and parents;
· Material and housing difficulties.
The second crisis period
associated with the birth of the first child. The family as an integral system has not yet been strengthened, many of the typical problems for a young family are not solved and new ones are emerging:
· The need to change the role structure – parenting roles appear – (baby care, upbringing of children);
· The husband’s status changes – his wife concentrates on the child to the detriment of her husband’s relationship;
· The possibilities of professional growth of spouses deteriorate, there are less opportunities for free realization in personally attractive activities (hobbies, hobbies);
· It is possible to disproportionate distribution of the loads associated with child care, increase the burden of the wife, and as a result of fatigue and possible temporary loss of sexual activity;
· Still, for most families, material and housing problems remain typical and upright.
Third crisis period
is connected with the situation of leaving the parents’ family of the last child. Conflict relationships can be determined by the possible manifestation of the “person’s crisis” of one or both spouses, retirement, the emergence of a sense of loneliness associated with the departure of children, the monotony of communication, monotony, the lack of bright emotions in relationships, experiences about the family life of children. In addition, during this period, the emotional dependence of the wife, her feelings about the possible aspiration of her husband to show herself on the side, “it is not too late”, often occurs.
In addition to the above factors, in the study of marital conflicts, it is also necessary to take into account the stages of development of the family, more precisely, it is advisable to take into account at what stage of development this family is present. This is due to the fact that each stage of the development of the family is characterized by its tasks, with which the spouses have to deal with, and with typical problems that require their permission. Difficulties are very often encountered in the transition of a family from one stage to another when spouses can not immediately rebuild and preserve the previous principles and behavior that are characteristic of the previous stage.
The problem of stadiality has been poorly studied. The following six stages are most often identified: 1) pre-term period; 2) the family before the birth of the child; 3) family with children – preschool children; 4) family with children of school age; 5) family with adult children; 6) the family after the separation of adult children.
Let’s consider the main conflicts and problems that arise when spouses move from one stage to another.